عنوان مقاله [English]
Optimal allocation of resources for infrastructure facilities is a critical issue in planning of development activities. In Iran investment patterns and criteria under which resources are allocated among competing sectors and projects might have created investment bias towards already developed sectors, resulting in economic inefficiency. For this reason, the role of transportation investment on sub-sector economic development of Iran is examined in more detailed manner in this paper.Transportation is considered to be one of the most important infrastructural components influencing production. For this reason there exists considerable pressure for investment in the transportation sector. This paper argues TFP changes in the transportation and communication sector. According to the forth 5-year Development Plan in Iran, productivity is considered as one of the most important economic growth sources. Also, increasing in the productivity is required to improve by all public organizations and the ministries through the switching from input-oriented to output-oriented mechanism. In this context, it is needed to know the productivity increasing limitations in transportation and communication sector and how it is to be dealt with. To get this, in this study, TFP analysis is done by using DEA approach and Malmquist Index. DEA lends itself naturally to the performance of the economic sectors, because of its employment for assessing relative performance of sectors using various inputs to produce outputs. DEA is an ideal method to measure efficiency relative to the best performing sector. This allows us to identify efficient and non-efficient sectors and driving factors determining the efficiency of sectors. To do so, DEA calculates an efficiency score for each sector and generates the best practices frontier.The efficiencies are measured in terms of output productions, input factors and their weights, which are determined endogenously. The inputs include labor and capital consumption, and the outputs include value added production of each of the study sectors. At first, to identify the main resources of inefficiency for production factors in different economy sub-sectors, we measure relative efficiency. From figure 4, it is observed that in transportation sub-sector labor efficiency is decreasing during years after Islamic revolution in Iran. In data we find that TFP changes in the transportation and communication sector is the lowest in compare to the TFP for other economic sectors in Iran and also, this productivity growth was mainly accomplished through technical progress rather than efficiency improvement (table 2).But, according to the inter-sector TFP decomposition, problem in the management and technical efficiency causes decrease in the transportation and communication sector TFP during the period of study. To identify one of the main causes for this problem, we direct the readers to this fact that in Iran accessibility primarily depends on the roadway network. The negative externalities of the traffic jam, lack of facilities for alternative transportation modes (some because of sanction on air transportation) and its influence on efficiency is clearly demonstrated in the analysis.Public sector management in this sector can be mentioned as another source for management inefficiency which causes some problem for efficiency. It is also tried to investigate the reasons of this hierarchy of the transportation and communication sector concerning efficiency. As the inefficiency affects, the roles of monopolies in the sector, whole economy management, weak liberalization, the level and degree of reforms and tourism barriers were considered. Estimation results suggest that the transportation and communication sector could reap the benefit of liberalization effects, privatization, informational networks, technical up-grading, and the modern enterprise system in Iran.