چالشهای اجتماعی- حقوقی وسایل نقلیه خودران (بدون راننده) و سیاستهای موجود در قبال آنها

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

3 دانش‌آموخته دکتری‌، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

10.22034/tri.2021.92598

چکیده

سیاستگذاران در راه مدیریت و قاعده‌مند کردن جوانب مختلف وسایل نقلیه خودران با چالشهایی مواجهند. کشورهای پیشگام در عرصه این تکنولوژی نوین، سیاستهای متفاوتی را در قبال این چالشها و به منظور مدیریت تبعات منفی ورود این وسایل نقلیه به جامعه در پیش گرفته‌اند. هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر تبیین مهمترین چالشهای اجتماعی-حقوقی وسایل نقلیه خودران و واکنش کشورهای پیشرو در این عرصه، در قبال این چالشهاست. برای دستیابی به این هدف، تحقیقات منتشر شده طی 10سال اخیر از طریق پایگاههای اطلاعاتی آکادمیک مشهور گردآوری و مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. گزارشها و اسناد سیاستگذاری دولتی نیز برای شناسایی اقدامات دولتها در قبال چالشهای مورد نظر مورد ملاحظه قرار گرفتند. مهمترین چالشهای اجتماعی-حقوقی خودروهای خودران عبارتند از: ایمنی وسایل نقلیه خودران، مسئولیت مدنی ناشی از تصادفات این خودروها، حریم خصوصی سرنشینان خودرو و نهایتا امنیت سایبری سیستمهای کامپیوتری این وسایل نقلیه؛ در پاسخ به چالش ایمنی، اکثر دولتهای مورد مطالعه از اتخاذ تدابیر بیش از حد سختگیرانه اجتناب کرده و استراتژیهای نظارت‌گرای نرمی را در قالب رهنمودها و توصیه‌های غیرالزام‌آور به منظور ارتقای ایمنی این خودروها مورد اتخاذ قرار داده‌اند. در رابطه با چالش مسئولیت، اغلب کشورها یا واکنشی از خود نشان نداده‌اند یا از استراتژی نظارت‌گرای نرم در قالب رهنمودهای غیرالزام‌آور تبعیت کرده‌اند و در حال بررسی گزینه‌های مناسب، پیش از تصویب قوانین دائمی خود هستند. واکنش دولتها به چالش حریم خصوصی در طیفی از تصویب قوانین حریم خصوصی جدید، تکیه بر قوانین حریم خصوصی کنونی و تدوین اصول مربوط به حریم خصوصی، متغیر است. سیاستهای موجود در قبال چالش امنیت سایبری بطور قابل توجهی بین دولتهای مورد مطالعه متفاوت است که در طیفی از اصلاح مقررات کنونی، تدوین مقررات جدید غیرمختص به وسایل نقلیه خودران، تشکیل کارگروههایی برای بررسی این مشکلات، بودجه‌ریزی تحقیقات مرتبط با امنیت سایبری در بخش خصوصی و تدوین اصول امنیت سایبری برای تولیدکنندگان، قرار می‌گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Social-Legal Challenges of Self-driving Vehicles and Existing Policies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rouhollah Rezaie 1
  • Mohammad Salehi Mazandarani 2
  • Ali Haddadzadeh Shakiba 3
1 Ph.D., Student, School of Low, University of Qom, Qom, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, School of Low, University of Qom, Qom, Iran.
3 Ph.D., Grad., School of Low, University of Qom, Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Intelligent Self-driving cars are stepping into public roads and policy makers and law makers are facing challenges in regulating different aspects of this new technology. Leading countries in the field of self-driving cars have adopted different strategies against this challenges and in order to manage negative effects the entrance of these vehicles into society may have. The main object of this contribution is to clarify the most important socio-legal challenges of self-driving cars and responses of leading countries to them. In order to reach the abovementioned aim, we considered researches published in the main academic sources during last ten years. Governmental documents and reports also have been considered to recognize past, current and future measures. The main socio-legal challenges of self-driving cars are: safety of self-driving cars, civil responsibility arising from collisions of these cars, Private confidentiality of passengers and finally security of computer systems of these vehicles. In response to safety challenge most of countries avoided imposing sever measures and adopted soft control policies in form of recommendations. With respect to the issue of civil responsibility, most countries either showed no response or followed a soft control policy in form of voluntary recommendations. Responses of considered countries in respect of private confidentiality challenge differs in range of making new regulations, insisting on current laws and making principles for private confidentiality matter.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social challenges
  • legal challenges
  • Self-driving Vehicles
  • Policy making
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